University of Economics in Bratislava
World Agriculture and Foresty
The Agriculture Additional System and Pratices in Turkey
Agriculture is the main base of our daily life.All the thinks directly on indirectly depend on the agriculture in the world.It is a big sector of life.So, it is the cultivation of the soil.But in reality agriculture is not confined in soil cultivation alone; it includes all aspects of crop production,livestock farming,fisheries foresty.
In this essay; I am going analyse “The Agriculture Additional System and Praticies in Turkey.”Also,It is concerned with the instutions,additional approaches and activies in the AES.In addition,some critical issues in public extension system are explained.The agricultural exension system can be defined as an agricultural information exchange system which show actor.. The analysis of how different information sources use and support each actor.Agriculture extension activities are mainly performed by the Ministry of agriculture and rural affairs.Also, mass media are part of the it.
THE AGRICULTURE ADDITIONAL SYSTEM IN TURKEY
Agricuture in Turkey
Turkey is the world’s 7th largest agricultural producer overall, and is the world leader in the production of dried figs, hazelnuts, sultanas/raisins, and dried apricots.The country is also one of the leading honey producers in the world. Turkey boasted production of 18.6 million tons of milk in 2015, making it the leading milk and dairy producer in its region.The country also saw production totals of 38.6 million tons of cereal crops,17.5 million tons of fruit and 1.1 million tons of red meat. In addition, Turkey has an estimated total of 11,000 plant species, whereas the total number of species in Europe is 11,500.
Dairy products including milk, yoghurt, cheese, kefir, and ayran (a drink made of yoghurt and water and Our National Drink 🙂 ) form an integral part of the traditional Turkish Diet.Turkey offers a set of incentives for potential agribusiness investors. The Turkish government’s support mechanisms include favorable regulations, an extremely competitive tax structure, a qualified labor force, and numerous invesment incentive..As part of its targets set for the agriculture sector by 2023 Turkey aims to be among the top five overall producers globally. Turkey’s vision for its centenary in 2023 includes other ambitious goals, such as:
+ USD 150 billion gross agricultural domestic product
+ USD 40 billion agricultural exports
+ 8.5 million hectare irrigable area (from 5.4 million)
+ Ranking number one in fisheries as compared with the EU
Turkey has set up some important services to realize these goals. Through these services, the producer, retailer and consumer under control can easily receive information change easily.
*Public Exentision Services
MARA,is directly responsible for public extension activities in agriculture. These activities are performed by the departments of MARA and at different levels.The General Directorate of Organization and Support (TEDGEM).Its Department of Agricultural Extension are primarily responsible for the planning.. The responsibilities of the Department of Agricultural Extension can be summarized as follows:
+Develop extension programmes in order to introduce new information and technologies about agriculture,
+Manage and monitor foreign financed and local agricultural projects,
+Define and provide mass media materials for extension activities.
Agricultural extension and related activities are implemented by agriculture directorates at 81 provinces, 803 districts, and thousands of villages.Although the farmers’ training and extension (FTE) Section is directly responsible for extension activities.. FTEs focus on transferring information to and from farmers, and work with agricultural research institutes.
Each province has a number of districts which have also their own district directorate, responsible for agricultural and other services. The District Extension Officer (DEO) plans, organizes and monitors all extension activities and in-service training for Village Group Technicians (VGTs).Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) are responsible for training VGTs regularly, assist DEOs and liaise with research staff. In selected villages, there are VGT centres. VGTs are intended to live in villages and be responsible for training farmer groups whose interests are the same.They also transfer farmers’ problems to extension and research specialists. The extension system applied by MARA functions as a training and visit system.
*Private Exentision Activies
Actors in the private sector which have an extension function in the AES are the farmers’ associations.
The Chamber of Agriculture(TZOB);is the biggest farmers’ asssociation in Turkey, with more than two million members.Its effectiveness is limited to advocating farmers’ rights (lobby activities), and providing services to its members.The government gives financial support to the TZOB budget, and so it is not independent administratively.Farmers have to be members in order to get credit from The Bank of Agriculture and some other some cooperatives.Thus,membership tends to be perceived as obligatory.Also,in particular some private firms have organic production projects to export these products.
Istanbul Halk Ekmek(IHE);The bread factory IHE of Istanbul Municipality has organized and implemented Organic Agriculture Project.IHE contracted those farmers to produce organic wheat, make bread and sell it. Farmers in the project area adopt organic agricultural practices for their incomes which are increased through market guarantees and Premium prices.Thus, the project may limit the drift from the land, help the development of domestic markets and hence persuade other producers. In parallel with the previous research on distance education in the world, limited empirical research on YAYÇEP shows that.
Turkish Development Foundation(TKV);is a charity which provides farmer training and undertakes rural development activities. The aim is to improve the socioeconomic conditions of small farmers.TKV also promoted the establishment of rural organizations, and organized education and extension activities in home economics, family planning and health, and agricultural courses in beekeeping, poultry and carpet weaving.
Public and private organizations which are responsible for farmer training and extension activities constitute the AES in Turkey.Public extension activities are mainly provided by MARA and their directorates at province, district and village levels.The organizational structure of MARA is top-down, and their extension activities are managed through the Training and Visit System.The lack of participation evident in the system is the consequence of centre-planned public extension programmes. Widespread Farmers’ Training Project by Television (YAYÇEP) was very successful in widening the context of the extension work and reaching more rural people. Farmers’ associations and cooperatives mainly focus on input and credit supply, and the marketing of agricultural products. However, they are involved in some farmer training and extension activities.
Overall, extension activities have been mainly organized and delivered by public institutions. There is a lack of effective communication between agricultural information providers. The private sector’s extension activities have only recently been developed, are limited in terms of coverage area, and are product specific. Thus, there is a need for effective coordination of the information dissemination in the system.
In my opinion;
Turkey can not develop by maintaining its existing structure of agriculture.Sustinable field should balanced production of product.Processing facilities should be built up.The agriculture should registired sector.Modern technology should use.
According to political invesments and supports;In East and Southeast section shoul make real reform about the agriculture and encourring.Also, In Turkey; The farmers can not use treasure grounds.I think;The government can allow to them for treasure grounds.
As a result;
In Turkey , The agriculture and additional agriculture pratices will be developing when these invesments and projects are implemented.
+TZOB (1993). Leader Farmer Project, TZOB Çiftçi ve Köy Dünyası