University of Economics in Bratislava
World Agriculture and Foresty
Climate Change Influence to Agriculture and Forestry
Forests are among those ecosytems on Earth that remain the least disturbed by human influences.They are of great socieconomic importance as a source of timber,pulpwood for paper making,fuel,and many non-economic values,such as resources for tourism,habitat for wildlife or the protection of water resources.Forests harbor the majority of the world’s biodiversity.
Forests are ecosystems in which trees interact with each other, with other plants like shrubs and grasses, and with animals or other heterotrophic organisms such as insects or fungi. At a broad scale, forest structure is modified by processes ranging from almost continuous change due to the death of individual trees and the subsequent recruitment of seedlings, to catastrophic events such as fire, insects, wind-fall or logging that kill whole stands of trees simultaneously. At any given moment, a forest represents the outcome of long-lasting past processes, often covering many centuries.
Forest ecosystems respond to environmental changes with time constants ranging from hours to decades and up to millennia; they are among the components of the biosphere that respond most slowly to climatic change. The role of forest dynamics in the global climatic system is likely to be long lasting, complex, and difficult to predict. Because of their longevity and because adaptive measures, such as replacement of species, are harder to implement than in agricultural systems, forests may be particularly vulnerable to climatic change.
WHAT IS AGRICULTURE?
- Agriculture is the cultivation of animals,plants and fungi for food,fiber,biofuel,medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life,
- Agriculture is the sytematic raising of useful plants and livestock under the management of man,
- Agriculture is the growing of both pants and animals for human needs,
- Agriculture, Agricultural Enterprise or Agricultural Activity means the cultivation of the soil, planting of crops, growing of fruit trees, including the harvesting of such farm products, and other farm activities and practices performed by a farmer in conjunction with such farming operations done by persons whether natural or juridical,
- Agriculture includes farming in all branches and, among other things, includes the cultivation and tillage of soil, dairying, the production, cultivation, growing and harvesting of any agricultural and horticultural commodities, the raising of livestock or poultry, and any practices performed by a farmer on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with such farming operations, but does not include the manufacturing or processing of sugar, coconuts, abaca, tobacco, pineapple or other farm products.
WHAT IS FORESTRY?
- Forestry is the science, art, and practice of sustainably managing forested resources for the benefit of humans,
- Forestry is both a science and an art,
- Forestry involves more resources than just trees,
- Foresters manage for a broad spectrum of benefits that humans desire from their forests.
WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE?
Climate change is a change in the usual weather found in a place. This could be a change in how much rain a place usually gets in a year. Or it could be a change in a place’s usual temperature for a month or season.Climate change is also a change in Earth’s climate. This could be a change in Earth’s usual temperature. Or it could be a change in where rain and snow usually fall on Earth.Weather can change in just a few hours. Climate takes hundreds or even millions of years to change.
HOW AND WHY DOES CLIMATE VARY NATURALLY?
Climate varies naturally on a whole range of timescales and these variations can have profound impacts on weather conditions around the world, such as storms and heavy rainfall. Understanding and predicting these natural variations is a key research challenge within NCAS-Climate.
Agriculture is the major land use across the globe. Currently 1.2–1.5 billion hectares are under crops, with another 3.5 billion hectares being grazed. Another 4 billion hectares of forest are used by humans to differing degrees, whereas, away from land, global fisheries are used very intensively, often beyond capacity. To meet projected growth in human population and per capita food demand, historical increases in agricultural production will have to continue, eventually doubling current production. Agriculture is also a major economic, social, and cultural activity, and it provides a wide range of ecosystem services. Importantly, agriculture in its many different forms and locations remains highly sensitive to climate variations, the dominant source of the overall interannual variability of production in many regions and a continuing source of disruption to ecosystem services. For example, the El Nin˜o Southern Oscillation phenomenon, with its associated cycles of droughts and flooding events, explains between 15% and 35% of global yield variation in wheat, oilseeds, and coarse grains. This existing sensitivity explains why a changing climate will have subsequent impacts on agriculture. Hence, it has become critical to identify and evaluate options for adapting to climate change in coming decades. Here we use the term ‘‘adaptation’’ to include the actions of adjusting practices, processes, and capital in response to the actuality or threat of climate change, as well as responses in the decision environment, such as changes in social and institutional structures or altered technical options that can affect the potential or capacity for these actions to be realized.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes,both of which take place on a global scale.Climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways,including through changes in average temperatures,rainfall and climate extremes;changes in pests and diseases;changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations;changes in the nutritional quality of some foods and changes in sea level.
Climate change is already affecting agriculte, with effects unevenly distributed across the world.Future climate change will likely negatively affect crop production in low latitude countries,while effects in northern latitudes may be positive or negative.Climate change will probably increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups,such as the poor.
In the long run,the climatic change could affect agriculture in several ways,
- Productivity,in terms of quantity and quality of crops,
- Agriculture practices,through changes of water use and agricultural inputs such as herbicides,insecticides and fertilizers,
- Environmental effects,in particular in relation of frequency and intensity of soil drainage,soil erosion,reduction of crop diversity,
- Rural space,through the loss and gain of cultivated lands,land speculation,land renunciation and hydraulic amenities,
- Adaptation,organisms may become more or less competitive as well as humans may develop urgency to develop more competitive organisms,such as flood resistant or salt resistant varieties of rice.
CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON FORESTRY
Warming temperatures generally increase the length of the growing season. It also shifts the geographic ranges of some tree species. Habitats of some types of trees are likely to move north or to higher altitudes. Other species will be at risk locally or regionally if conditions in their current geographic ranges are no longer suitable. For example, species that currently exist only on mountaintops in some regions may die out as the climate warms since they cannot shift to a higher altitude.
Climate change will likely increase the risk of drought in some areas and the risk of extreme precipitation and flooding in others. Increased temperatures alter the timing of snowmelt, affecting the seasonal availability of water. Although many trees are resilient to some degree of drought, increases in temperature could make future droughts more damaging than those experienced in the past. In addition, drought increases wildfire risk, since dry trees and shrubs provide fuel to fires. Drought also reduces trees’ ability to produce sap, which protects them from destructive insects such as pine beetles.
Carbon dioxide is required for photosynthesis, the process by which green plants use sunlight to grow. Given sufficient water and nutrients, increases in atmospheric CO2 may enable trees to be more productive, which may change the distribution of tree species. Growth will be highest in nutrient-rich soils with no water limitation, and will decrease with decreasing fertility and water supply.
Climate change could contribute to an increase in the severity of future insect outbreaks. Rising temperatures may enable some insect species to develop faster, alter their seasonal life cycles, and expand their ranges northward. Invasive plant species can displace important native vegetation because the invasive species often lack natural predators.
Hurricanes, ice storms, and wind storms can cause damage to forests. Disturbances can interact with one another, or with changes in temperature and precipitation, to increase risks to forests. For example, drought can weaken trees and make a forest more susceptible to wildfire or insect outbreaks.
To summarize , as we saw in the article , we can see the effect of climate change in bad way. Because of that , we lose our forests , natural resources . We will have scarcity of natural resources and of course it will effect to us in the short -run. Maybe there will be wars because of this scarcity.
And maybe next generations will have troubles with that. Vegetables and other products that produced from forest and natural areas will disappear.
Change of temperature will cause to ruin growth of vegetables and increase bugs . And it will effect to agriculture , it will cause scarcity of foods and people will fight in order to take more food.
What can we do ?
– We should plant a lot of tree in order to avoid effects of climate change.
-Technological products must be produced less damage by firms.
-Urbanization must be stopped.
-Industry must be done without any harmfull effect World.
-Products that consume less energy must be used , in this way we can save energy and natural resources.
– We shouldn’t waste energy , natural resources , water resources for production of somethings.
-We should keep clean environment.